• Inicio
  • Resultados de la búsqueda
  • CD40-TNF activation in mice induces extended sickness behavior syndrome co-incident with but not dependent on activation of the kynurenine pathway.

CD40-TNF activation in mice induces extended sickness behavior syndrome co-incident with but not dependent on activation of the kynurenine pathway.

Brain, behavior, and immunity (2015-07-15)
Flurin Cathomas, Rene Fuertig, Hannes Sigrist, Gregory N Newman, Vanessa Hoop, Manuela Bizzozzero, Andreas Mueller, Andreas Luippold, Angelo Ceci, Bastian Hengerer, Erich Seifritz, Adriano Fontana, Christopher R Pryce
RESUMEN

The similarity between sickness behavior syndrome (SBS) in infection and autoimmune disorders and certain symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD), and the high co-morbidity of autoimmune disorders and MDD, constitutes some of the major evidence for the immune-inflammation hypothesis of MDD. CD40 ligand-CD40 immune-activation is important in host response to infection and in development of autoimmunity. Mice given a single intra-peritoneal injection of CD40 agonist antibody (CD40AB) develop SBS for 2-3days characterized by weight loss and increased sleep, effects that are dependent on the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Here we report that CD40AB also induces behavioral effects that extend beyond acute SBS and co-occur with but are not mediated by kynurenine pathway activation and recovery. CD40AB led to decreased saccharin drinking (days 1-7) and decreased Pavlovian fear conditioning (days 5-6), and was without effect on physical fatigue (day 5). These behavioral effects co-occurred with increased plasma and brain levels of kynurenine and its metabolites (days 1-7/8). Co-injection of TNF blocker etanercept with CD40AB prevented each of SBS, reduced saccharin drinking, and kynurenine pathway activation in plasma and brain. Repeated oral administration of a selective indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor blocked activation of the kynurenine pathway but was without effect on SBS and saccharin drinking. This study provides novel evidence that CD40-TNF activation induces deficits in saccharin drinking and Pavlovian fear learning and activates the kynurenine pathway, and that CD40-TNF activation of the kynurenine pathway is not necessary for induction of the acute or extended SBS effects.

MATERIALES
Referencia del producto
Marca
Descripción del producto

Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethylamine, anhydrous, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Saccharin, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethylamine solution, 43.0-49.0% in H2O (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethylamine solution, 31-35 wt. % in ethanol, 4.2 M, contains toluene as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Saccharin, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethylamine solution, 25 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Trimethylamine solution, 25 wt. % in propylene glycol