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IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production.

Mucosal immunology (2015-01-08)
Y Jung, T Wen, M K Mingler, J M Caldwell, Y H Wang, D D Chaplin, E H Lee, M H Jang, S Y Woo, J Y Seoh, M Miyasaka, M E Rothenberg

Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3 deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer's patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t-positive (ROR-γt(+)) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β-deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA(+) cells and ROR-γt(+) ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine.

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DAPI, for nucleic acid staining
Pyrvinium pamoate salt hydrate, ≥98% (HPLC)
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98% (TLC)
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, tablet, 1 mg substrate per tablet
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥99%
3,3′,5,5′-Tetramethylbenzidine, ≥98.0% (NT)