Development and in-vivo evaluation of ondansetron gels for transdermal delivery.

Drug development and industrial pharmacy (2014-06-13)
Dipal R Patel, Amit Joshi, Hiren H Patel, Grazia Stagni
RESUMEN

Nausea and vomiting are some of the major side effects caused by certain drug therapies, e.g. chemotherapy, radiotherapy and general anesthesia. Because of the nature of the symptoms, oral delivery is inappropriate, while intravenous administration may be unpractical. The aim of the present study was to develop a transdermal gel (2% Klucel®) for ondansetron, a first line 5-HT3-receptor-antagonist antiemetic. The effects of the penetration enhancer camphor and isopropyl-myristate (IPM) were first investigated in-vitro using modified Franz diffusion-cells and then tested in-vivo in a rabbit model by measuring skin and plasma concentrations. Since a disadvantage of transdermal delivery is a prolonged lag-time, the effect of skin treatment with a micro-needle roller was tested. The in-vitro permeation studies through excised porcine ear skin showed that the presence of 2.5% camphor or IPM increased steady state flux by 1.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively, compared to the control gel. Ondansetron was not detectable in either skin or plasma following in-vivo application of the base-gel, whereas the camphor gel and IPM gel delivered 20 and 81 µg/cm(2) of ondansetron, respectively. Microporation led to an increase in plasma Cmax and AUC by 10.47 ± 1.68-fold and 9.31 ± 4.91-fold, respectively, for the camphor gel, and by 2.31 ± 0.53-fold and 1.59 ± 0.38-fold, respectively for the IPM gel. In conclusion, the 2.5% IPM gel demonstrated optimal in-vivo transdermal flux. Skin pretreatment with a micro-needle roller slightly improved the delivery of the IPM gel, whereas dramatically increased the transdermal delivery of the camphor gel.

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