Uptake, effects, and regeneration of barley plants exposed to gold nanoparticles.

Environmental science and pollution research international (2015-01-07)
Nadine S Feichtmeier, Paul Walther, Kerstin Leopold
RESUMEN

Within the last years, nanogold has become more and more important in nanotechnology, for example, as catalyst or in medical applications. Its rising production, application, and disposal inevitably lead to an increased emission of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) in the environment. However, only little is known about the uptake and effects of Au-NPs on biota. The objective of this study was to investigate the reversibility and effects of citrate-coated Au-NP uptake into the model organism barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose, barley seeds were cultivated in Au-NP-containing nutrient solution for 2 weeks before the seedlings were transferred into Au-NP-free media and grown for another 3 weeks. Stability of Au-NPs in the cultivation media was investigated over the 2-week exposure time. Gold content in the leaves and roots of the plants was measured after 2 weeks of exposure and after 7, 14, and 21 days of regeneration by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis after microwave-assisted digestion. Moreover, Au-NPs within plant material were localized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of ultrathin cross sections. The obtained results reveal that Au-NPs accumulate in the plant roots. Concentration-dependent effects on the uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients, as well as on biomass production of exposed plants, in particular, on root growth were observed. Even though exposed barley plants were able to regenerate to a certain extent, their root growth was permanently decreased.

MATERIALES
Referencia del producto
Marca
Descripción del producto

Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium borohydride, powder, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 25% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade II, 25% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium borohydride, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Nitric acid, 70%, purified by redistillation, ≥99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, 50 wt. % in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Propanol, anhydrous, 99.7%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium borohydride, purum p.a., ≥96% (gas-volumetric)
Sigma-Aldrich
Nitric acid, ACS reagent, ≥90.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, anhydrous, free-flowing, Redi-Dri, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 50% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium borohydride, granular, 99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Osmium tetroxide, Sealed ampule.
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, anhydrous, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 70% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
Sigma-Aldrich
Osmium tetroxide solution, suitable for electron microscopy, 4% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium borohydride solution, ~12 wt. % in 14 M NaOH
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium hydroxide, anhydrous, ≥99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, BioUltra, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Citric acid, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Glutaraldehyde solution, Grade I, 8% in H2O, specially purified for use as an electron microscopy fixative or other sophisticated use
Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Osmium tetroxide solution, suitable for electron microscopy, 2% in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
1-Propanol, ≥99%, FG