• Inicio
  • Resultados de la búsqueda
  • Ultrasound and electric pulses for transdermal drug delivery enhancement: Ex vivo assessment of methods with in vivo oriented experimental protocols.

Ultrasound and electric pulses for transdermal drug delivery enhancement: Ex vivo assessment of methods with in vivo oriented experimental protocols.

International journal of pharmaceutics (2015-05-20)
Barbara Zorec, Jure Jelenc, Damijan Miklavčič, Nataša Pavšelj
RESUMEN

In our present study we focus on two physical enhancement methods for transdermal drug delivery: ultrasound and electric pulses either alone or in combination. Great emphasis has been given on the design of the experimental system and protocols, so the results and the conclusions drawn from them would have greater relevance for in vivo use and later translation into clinical practice. Our results show a statistically significant enhancement of calcein delivery (after one hour of passive diffusion following treatment) already after 5 minutes of ultrasound application, or only 6 × 100 short high voltage electrical pulses. We also experimented with combinations of the two enhancement methods hoping for synergistic effects, however, the results showed no evident drastic improvement over single method. Looking closer at physics of both methods, this absence of synergy in our in vivo oriented experimental setting is not surprising. The mechanism of action of both methods is the creation of aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum leading to increased skin permeability. However, when used in combination (regardless of the order of methods), the second method was unsuccessful in adding many new aqueous pathways in the stratum corneum, as it acted preferentially near the sites of the existing ones.

MATERIALES
Referencia del producto
Marca
Descripción del producto

Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, for molecular biology, DNase, RNase, and protease, none detected, ≥99% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, powder, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 0.9% in water, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M in H2O, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, ReagentPlus®
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
SAFC
Sodium chloride solution, 5 M
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, for molecular biology, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~1 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, for molecular biology, ≥98.5% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, 99.0-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Calcein, Used for the fluorometric determination of calcium and EDTA titration of calcium in the presence of magnesium.
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic solution, BioUltra, 0.5 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (AT)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride solution, 0.075 M, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, 0.85%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride solution, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ~5 M in H2O
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium phosphate dibasic, 99.95% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium phosphate monobasic, BioUltra, for molecular biology, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, 99.999% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium chloride, BioPerformance Certified, ≥99% (titration), suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture