Merck
  • Home
  • Search Results
  • Seasonal variation in formation, structure, and chemical properties of phloem in Picea abies as studied by novel microtechniques.

Seasonal variation in formation, structure, and chemical properties of phloem in Picea abies as studied by novel microtechniques.

Planta (2015-06-25)
Tuula M Jyske, Jussi-Petteri Suuronen, Andrey V Pranovich, Tapio Laakso, Ugai Watanabe, Katsushi Kuroda, Hisashi Abe
ABSTRACT

Phloem production and structural development were interlinked with seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of phloem. Novel microtechniques provided new perspectives on understanding phloem structure and chemistry. To gain new insights into phloem formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies), we monitored phloem cell production and seasonal variation in the primary and secondary metabolites of inner bark (non-structural carbohydrates and phenolic stilbene glucosides) during the 2012 growing season in southern and northern Finland. The structure of developing phloem was visualised in 3D by synchrotron X-ray microtomography. The chemical features of developing phloem tissues isolated by laser microdissection were analysed by chemical microanalysis. Within-year phloem formation was associated with seasonal changes in non-structural carbohydrates and phenolic extractive contents of inner bark. The onset of phloem cell production occurred in early and mid-May in southern and northern Finland, respectively. The maximal rate of phloem production and formation of a tangential band of axial phloem parenchyma occurred in mid-June, when total non-structural carbohydrates peaked (due to the high amount of starch). In contrast, soluble sugar content dropped during the most active growth period and increased in late summer and winter. The 3D visualisation showed that the new axial parenchyma clearly enlarged from June to August. Sub-cellular changes appeared to be associated with accumulation of stilbene glucosides and soluble sugars in the newest phloem. Stilbene glucosides also increased in inner bark during late summer and winter. Our findings may indicate that stilbene biosynthesis in older phloem predominantly occurs after the formation of the new band(s) of axial parenchyma. The complementary use of novel microtechniques provides new perspectives on the formation, structure, and chemistry of phloem.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Heptadecanoic acid, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyridine, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, anhydrous, denatured
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Nitrogen, ≥99.998%
Sigma-Aldrich
Pyridine, anhydrous, 99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, NF
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioUltra, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, anhydrous, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Dextrose, meets EP, BP, JP, USP testing specifications, anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioXtra, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade I, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, for molecular biology, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, Grade II, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ACS reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioXtra
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
D-Sorbitol, for molecular biology, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
myo-Inositol, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
D-Sorbitol, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
D-Sorbitol, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
myo-Inositol, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for plant cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
D-Sorbitol, BioXtra, ≥98%
Sigma-Aldrich
1-(Trimethylsilyl)imidazole, 96%