Ampelopsis grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb among the indigenous people in the Yangtze River region of China. Dihydromyricetin (DMY) is the most abundant (approximately 30%) and bioactive constituent in A. grossedentata (Hand.-Mazz.) W.T. Wang, and recent studies have demonstrated its various pharmacological activities. In the present study, a first specific, sensitive, rapid and reliable LC-MS/MS method for the determination of DMY in rat plasma was developed and validated. The plasma samples were prepared with protein precipitation method, and chromatographic separation was performed on a Welch Ultimate XB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) using a gradient elution with water and acetonitrile. The mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was conducted in negative ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions at m/z 319.1→192.8 for DMY and m/z 609.0→301.2 for rutin (IS). The plasma concentration profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed after oral administration of dextroisomer and racemate DMY at the dose of 100 mg/kg in rats. The method validation was conducted over the calibration range of 10.0-5000 ng/ml with the intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy within 12.0% (RSD) and 5.6% (RE). The recoveries, matrix effect and stability under different conditions were all proved acceptable. The values of Tmax, AUC(0-∞) and Vd were significantly different between the groups of dextroisomer and racemate DMY (P<0.05), and pharmacokinetic results revealed their poor absorptions into blood, probably high tissue distributions and slow elimination processes. The present study will provide helpful information for the further studies and future clinical applications of DMY.