Merck

Highly efficient extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin using deep eutectic solvents as green and tunable media.

Archives of pharmacal research (2015-11-05)
Kyung Min Jeong, Jing Zhao, Yan Jin, Seong Rok Heo, Se Young Han, Da Eun Yoo, Jeongmi Lee
RESUMEN

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were investigated as tunable, environmentally benign, yet superior extraction media to enhance the extraction of anthocyanins from grape skin, which is usually discarded as waste. Ten DESs containing choline chloride as hydrogen bond acceptor combined with different hydrogen bond donors were screened for high extraction efficiencies based on the anthocyanin extraction yields. As a result, citric acid, D-(+)-maltose, and fructose were selected as the effective DES components, and the newly designed DES, CM-6 that is composed of citric acid and D-(+)-maltose at 4:1 molar ratio, exhibited significantly higher levels of anthocyanin extraction yields than conventional extraction solvents such as 80% aqueous methanol. The final extraction method was established based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction under conditions optimized using response surface methodology. Its extraction yields were double or even higher than those of conventional methods that are time-consuming and use volatile organic solvents. Our method is truly a green method for anthocyanin extraction with great extraction efficiency using a minimal amount of time and solvent. Moreover, this study suggested that grape skin, the by-products of grape juice processing, could serve as a valuable source for safe, natural colorants or antioxidants by use of the eco-friendly extraction solvent, CM-6.

MATERIALES
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Sigma-Aldrich
Acetic acid, glacial, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.8%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetic acid, glacial, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, 99.8-100.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium carbonate, ACS reagent, anhydrous, ≥99.5%, powder or granules
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium carbonate, ACS reagent (primary standard), anhydrous, 99.95-100.05% dry basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, puriss. p.a., reag. ISO, reag. Ph. Eur., 99.5-100.5%
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Acetic acid solution, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol solution, puriss. p.a., 86-89% (T)
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium acetate, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., anhydrous
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Acetic acid, glacial, ≥99.99% trace metals basis
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium acetate, ACS reagent, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Ethanol solution, certified reference material, 2000 μg/mL in methanol
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Acetic acid-12C2, 99.9 atom % 12C
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D-(−)-Fructose, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture
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D-(−)-Fructose, meets USP testing specifications
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Glycerin, meets USP testing specifications
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Sodium carbonate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
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Potassium chloride, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride solution, 0.075 M, sterile-filtered, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Ethanol standards 10% (v/v), 10 % (v/v) in H2O, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, BioXtra
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D-(−)-Fructose, ≥99%
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Liquified Phenol, ≥89.0%
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Sodium acetate, anhydrous, for molecular biology, ≥99%
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D-(−)-Ribose, suitable for cell culture, BioReagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium acetate, meets USP testing specifications, anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium acetate, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Sodium acetate, powder, BioReagent, suitable for electrophoresis, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Potassium chloride, AnhydroBeads, −10 mesh, 99.99% trace metals basis