Vif is a lentiviral accessory protein that regulates viral infectivity in part by inducing proteasomal degradation of APOBEC3G (A3G). Recently, CBFβ was found to facilitate Vif-dependent degradation of A3G. However, the exact role of CBFβ remains unclear. Several studies noted reduced Vif expression in CBFβ knockdown cells while others saw no significant impact of CBFβ on Vif stability. Here, we confirmed that CBFβ increases Vif steady-state levels. CBFβ affected expression of neither viral Gag nor Vpu protein, indicating that CBFβ regulates Vif expression posttranscriptionally. Kinetic studies revealed effects of CBFβ on both metabolic stability and the rate of Vif biosynthesis. These effects were dependent on the ability of CBFβ to interact with Vif. Importantly, at comparable Vif levels, CBFβ further enhanced A3G degradation, suggesting that CBFβ facilitates A3G degradation by increasing the levels of Vif and by independently augmenting the ability of Vif to target A3G for degradation. CBFβ also increased expression of RUNX1 by enhancing RUNX1 biosynthesis. Unlike Vif, however, CBFβ had no detectable effect on RUNX1 metabolic stability. We propose that CBFβ acts as a chaperone to stabilize Vif during and after synthesis and to facilitate interaction of Vif with cellular cofactors required for the efficient degradation of A3G. In this study, we show that CBFβ has a profound effect on the expression of the HIV-1 infectivity factor Vif and the cellular transcription factor RUNX1, two proteins that physically interact with CBFβ. Kinetic studies revealed that CBFβ increases the rate of Vif and RUNX1 biosynthesis at the level of translation. Mutants of Vif unable to physically interact with CBFβ were nonresponsive to CBFβ. Our data suggest that CBFβ exerts a chaperone-like activity (i) to minimize the production of defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) by binding to nascent protein to prevent premature termination and (ii) to stabilize mature protein conformation to ensure proper function of Vif and RUNX1. Thus, we identified a novel mechanism of protein regulation that affects both viral and cellular factors and thus has broad implications beyond the immediate HIV field.