Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5alpha has been shown to restrict human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 infection in Old World monkey cells at the early post-entry step by poorly understood mechanisms. Currently, the physiological function of TRIM5alpha is not known. In this study, we showed that transiently overexpressed TRIM5alpha causes a morphological change in HEK293T cells. A proteomics analysis of the protein complexes that were pulled down with hemagglutinin-tagged TRIM5alpha suggested that the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) may serve as a TRIM5alpha-binding partner. The interaction between Hsp70 and TRIM5alpha was confirmed by co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Co-expression of Hsp70 reversed the TRIM5alpha-induced morphological change in HEK293T cells. Another heat shock protein Hsc70 also bound to TRIM5alpha, but unlike Hsp70, Hsc70 was not able to reverse the TRIM5alpha-induced morphological change, suggesting that Hsp70 specifically reverses the morphological change caused by TRIM5alpha. Studies using a series of TRIM5alpha deletion mutants demonstrate that, although the PRYSPRY domain is critical for binding to Hsp70, the entire TRIM5alpha structure is necessary to induce the morphological change of cells. When the ATPase domain of Hsp70 was mutated, the mutated Hsp70 could not counteract the morphological change induced by TRIM5alpha, indicating that the catalytic activity of Hsp70 protein is important for this function. Co-expression of Hsp70 elevated the levels of TRIM5alpha in the detergent-soluble fraction with a concomitant decrease in the detergent-insoluble fraction. Together these results suggest that Hsp70 plays critical roles in the cellular management against the TRIM5alpha-induced cellular insults.