Sodium chloride (NaCl), common salt also known as halite, is ubiquitous in occurrence and has many vital applications. It is a white crystalline solid, fairly soluble in water. NaCl is a flavouring agent in the food industry and used for texturing bread and baked foods. NaCl is an essential salt for normal body functions in humans and animals. NaCl is essential for maintaining plasma osmolality and extracellular fluid volume of the body. Excess of NaCl leads to elevated blood pressure which has implications on cardiovascular and renal diseases. NaCl is a basic component in the microbiological medium, specifically for culturing of halophiles. Sterile NaCl is a constituent of eye drop solutions.