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Reproducibility with Biological Buffers
Biological buffers are organic substances that maintain a constant pH over a given range by neutralizing the effects of hydrogen ions.
Restriction Endonucleases - The Molecular Scissors
The term “Restriction enzyme” originated from the studies of Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) in the laboratories of Werner Arber and Matthew Meselson.
Protein Visualization
Prior to probing a membrane using precious antibodies, it is helpful to visualize the transferred proteins on the blot to ensure complete transfer and even loading. This page describes possible causes and potential remedies for challenges encountered during protein visualization.
Troubleshooting First-Dimension IEF: MultiPhor™ II Electrophoresis System and Immobiline® DryStrip Kit
This page describes troubleshooting first-dimension isoelectric focusing using MultiPhor™ II Electrophoresis System and Immobiline® DryStrip Kit.
Performing a Purity and Homogeneity Check
This page shows how to perform a purification and homogeneity check of membrane proteins with products from Cytiva.
DNA / Protein Electrophoresis and Troubleshooting Tables
DNA / Protein Electrophoresis and Troubleshooting Tables
Troubleshooting Second-Dimension SDS-PAGE: Multiphor™ II Electrophoresis
This page describes troubleshooting second-dimension SDS-PAGE with Multiphor™ II Electrophoresis System.
Fluorescent Multiplex Detection using Antibody Atto Dye Conjugates
Immunoblotting (Western blot transfer) is a common technique in modern proteomics research.
Detergent Properties and Applications
Use detergents more effectively in cell lysis, membrane protein and lipid solubilization, protein crystallization, or Western blotting.
Troubleshooting 2-D DIGE Results
Troubleshooting 2-D DIGE Results
Precipitation Procedures
This page describes protein precipitation as an optional step in sample preparation for 2-D electrophoresis with Cytiva products.
Components of Rehydration Solution
This page describes components of rehydration solutions for use in 2-D Electrophoresis with Cytiva products.
Electrophoresis Protein Staining Reagents Selection Guide
To meet the great diversity of protein analysis needs, Sigma offers a wide selection of protein visualization (staining) reagents. EZBlue™ and ProteoSilver™, designed specifically for proteomics, also perform impressively in traditional PAGE formats.
Selecting DNA, RNA, and PCR Fragment Markers and Ladders for Gel Electrophoresis
Choose the appropriate markers and ladders for nucleic acid size determination of samples separated by electrophoresis. Determine size of DNA, RNA and PCR-generated fragments using agarose or polyacrylamide gels.
Auto2D® Automated 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Device
The Auto2D® 2-D Electrophoresis Device fully automates difficult 2D electrophoresis methods in a quick, easy, and reproducible way. Locate difficult-to-find proteins using the Auto2D® system in less than two hours with high reproducibility.
Sample Preparation & Gel Electrophoresis Troubleshooting
The possible causes and potential remedies for challenges encountered during preparation of samples for SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and optimizing electrophoresis conditions.