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Neonatal Consumption of Oligosaccharides Greatly Increases L-Cell Density without Significant Consequence for Adult Eating Behavior.

Nutrients (2019-08-24)
Gwenola Le Dréan, Anne-Lise Pocheron, Hélène Billard, Isabelle Grit, Anthony Pagniez, Patricia Parnet, Eric Chappuis, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen, Catherine Michel
ABSTRACT

Oligosaccharides (OS) are commonly added to infant formulas, however, their physiological impact, particularly on adult health programming, is poorly described. In adult animals, OS modify microbiota and stimulate colonic fermentation and enteroendocrine cell (EEC) activity. Since neonatal changes in microbiota and/or EEC density could be long-lasting and EEC-derived peptides do regulate short-term food intake, we hypothesized that neonatal OS consumption could modulate early EECs, with possible consequences for adult eating behavior. Suckling rats were supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), beta-galacto-oligosaccharides/inulin (GOS/In) mix, alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (αGOS) at 3.2 g/kg, or a control solution (CTL) between postnatal day (PND) 5 and 14/15. Pups were either sacrificed at PND14/15 or weaned at PND21 onto standard chow. The effects on both microbiota and EEC were characterized at PND14/15, and eating behavior at adulthood. Very early OS supplementation drastically impacted the intestinal environment, endocrine lineage proliferation/differentiation particularly in the ileum, and the density of GLP-1 cells and production of satiety-related peptides (GLP-1 and PYY) in the neonatal period. However, it failed to induce any significant lasting changes on intestinal microbiota, enteropeptide secretion or eating behavior later in life. Overall, the results did not demonstrate any OS programming effect on satiety peptides secreted by L-cells or on food consumption, an observation which is a reassuring outlook from a human perspective.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
α-Lactose monohydrate, ≥99% total lactose basis (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
D-(−)-Fructose, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Human PYY ELISA Kit, for cell culture supernatants, plasma, and serum samples
Sigma-Aldrich
Sucrose, ≥99.5% (GC)