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Chemokines and chemokine receptors in the brain: implication in neuroendocrine regulation.

Journal of molecular endocrinology (2007-03-07)
Céline Callewaere, Ghazal Banisadr, William Rostène, Stéphane Mélik Parsadaniantz
ABSTRACT

Chemokines are small secreted proteins that chemoattract and activate immune and non-immune cells both in vivo and in vitro. In addition to their well-established role in the immune system, several recent reports have suggested that chemokines and their receptors may also play a role in the central nervous system (CNS). The best known central action is their ability to act as immunoinflammatory mediators. Indeed, these proteins regulate leukocyte infiltration in the brain during inflammatory and infectious diseases. However, we and others recently demonstrated that they are expressed not only in neuroinflammatory conditions, but also constitutively by different cell types including neurons in the normal brain, suggesting that they may act as modulators of neuronal functions. The goal of this review is to highlight the role of chemokines in the control of neuroendocrine functions. First, we will focus on the expression of chemokines and their receptors in the CNS, with the main spotlight on the neuronal expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary system. Secondly, we will discuss the role--we can now suspect--of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions. In conclusion, we propose that chemokines can be added to the well-described neuroendocrine regulatory mechanisms, providing an additional fine modulatory tuning system in physiological conditions.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

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