Extracorporeal photochemotherapy induces bona fide immunogenic cell death.

Cell death & disease (2019-08-03)
Kazuki Tatsuno, Takahiro Yamazaki, Douglas Hanlon, Patrick Han, Eve Robinson, Olga Sobolev, Alp Yurter, Felix Rivera-Molina, Najla Arshad, Richard L Edelson, Lorenzo Galluzzi

Extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP) is employed for the management of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). ECP involves the extracorporeal exposure of white blood cells (WBCs) to a photosensitizer, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), in the context of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, followed by WBC reinfusion. Historically, the therapeutic activity of ECP has been attributed to selective cytotoxicity on circulating CTCL cells. However, only a fraction of WBCs is exposed to ECP, and 8-MOP is inactive in the absence of UVA light, implying that other mechanisms underlie the anticancer effects of ECP. Recently, ECP has been shown to enable the physiological differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DCs) that efficiently cross-present tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) to CD8+ T lymphocytes to initiate cognate immunity. However, the source of TAAs and immunostimulatory signals for such DCs remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that 8-MOP plus UVA light reduces melanoma cell viability along with the emission of ICD-associated danger signals including calreticulin (CALR) exposure on the cell surface and secretion of ATP, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and type I interferon (IFN). Consistently, melanoma cells succumbing to 8-MOP plus UVA irradiation are efficiently engulfed by monocytes, ultimately leading to cross-priming of CD8+ T cells against cancer. Moreover, malignant cells killed by 8-MOP plus UVA irradiation in vitro vaccinate syngeneic immunocompetent mice against living cancer cells of the same type, and such a protection is lost when cancer cells are depleted of calreticulin or HMGB1, as well as in the presence of an ATP-degrading enzyme or antibodies blocking type I IFN receptors. ECP induces bona fide ICD, hence simultaneously providing monocytes with abundant amounts of TAAs and immunostimulatory signals that are sufficient to initiate cognate anticancer immunity.

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Propidium iodide solution, solution (1.0 mg/ml in water)
cis-Diammineplatinum(II) dichloride, crystalline
Monoclonal Anti-β-Actin antibody produced in mouse, clone AC-74, ascites fluid
PKH67 Green Fluorescent Cell Linker Kit for General Cell Membrane Labeling, Distributed for Phanos Technologies
MISSION® pLKO.1-puro Empty Vector Control Plasmid DNA, Contains no shRNA insert
MISSION® pLKO.1-puro Non-Target shRNA Control Plasmid DNA, Targets no known genes from any species