Acute exposure to arsenic is known to cause bone marrow depression and result in anemia, in which the dusfunction of cells in the bone marrow niche such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is vital. However, the mechanism underlying response of MSCs to arsenic challange is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF) 1 (NRF1), a sister member of the well-known master regulator in antioxidative response NRF2, in arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mBM-MSCs). We found that arsenite exposure induced significant increase in the protein level of long-isoform NRF1 (L-NRF1). Though short-isoform NRF1 (S-NRF1) was induced by arsenite at mRNA level, its protein level was not obviously altered. Silencing L-Nrf1 sensitized the cells to arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. L-Nrf1-silenced mBM-MSCs showed decreased arsenic efflux with reduced expression of arsenic transporter ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4), as well as compromised NRF2-mediated antioxidative defense with elevated level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) under arsenite-exposed conditions. A specific mtROS scavenger (Mito-quinone) alleviated cell apoptosis induced by arsenite in L-Nrf1-silenced mBM-MSCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that L-NRF1 protects mBM-MSCs from arsenite-induced cytotoxicity via suppressing mtROS in addition to facilitating cellular arsenic efflux.