Oligodendrocyte (OL) loss contributes to the functional deficits underlying diseases with a demyelinating component. Remyelination by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) can restore these deficits. To understand the role that microRNAs (miRNAs) play in remyelination, 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase-EGFP(+) mice were treated with cuprizone, and OPCs were sorted from the corpus callosum. Microarray analysis revealed that Sfmbt2 family miRNAs decreased during cuprizone treatment. One particular Sfmbt2 miRNA, miR-297c-5p, increased during mouse OPC differentiation in vitro and during callosal development in vivo. When overexpressed in both mouse embryonic fibroblasts and rat OPCs (rOPCs), cell cycle analysis revealed that miR-297c-5p promoted G1/G0 arrest. Additionally, miR-297c-5p transduction increased the number of O1(+) rOPCs during differentiation. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-297c-5p targets cyclin T2 (CCNT2), the regulatory subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b, a complex that inhibits OL maturation. Furthermore, CCNT2-specific knockdown promoted rOPC differentiation while not affecting cell cycle status. Together, these data support a dual role for miR-297c-5p as both a negative regulator of OPC proliferation and a positive regulator of OL maturation via its interaction with CCNT2. This work describes the role of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) microRNAs (miRNAs) during remyelination and development in vivo and differentiation in vitro. This work highlights the importance of miRNAs to OPC biology and describes miR-297c-5p, a novel regulator of OPC function. In addition, we identified CCNT2 as a functional target, thus providing a mechanism by which miR-297c-5p imparts its effects on differentiation. These data are important, given our lack of understanding of OPC miRNA regulatory networks and their potential clinical value. Therefore, efforts to understand the role of miR-297c-5p in pathological conditions and its potential for facilitating repair may provide future therapeutic strategies to treat demyelination.