Spectral conversion for solar cells is an emerging concept in the field of photovoltaics, and it has the potential to increase significantly the efficiency of solar cells. Lanthanide ions are ideal candidates for spectral conversion, due to their high luminescence efficiencies and rich energy level structure that allows for great flexibility in the upconversion and downconversion of photons in a wide spectral region (NIR-VIS-UV).
Rechargeable solid-state batteries are becoming increasingly important due to wide-spread use in computers, portable electronics, and vehicular applications.
As with all types of fuel cells, a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is capable of efficiently transforming chemical energy into electrical energy.
White solid-state light can be generated using three different approaches: By employing three diodes that emit red, green and blue light respectively, by using a near-UV LED that excites several phosphors that emit over the complete spectral range, or the third, most widely used alternative entailing down-conversion of a portion of blue LED light to longer wavelengths in such a manner that white light emerges.