reagent type: catalyst
10.6 μΩ-cm, 20°C
<50 nm (TEM)
3827 °C (lit.)
1772 °C (lit.)
21.45 g/cm3 (lit.)
Flam. Sol. 1
4.1B - Flammable solid hazardous materials
Since the demonstration of the first practical solar cell 60 years ago, research on novel materials, improved solar cell design and structure, and innovative manufacturing processes have all contributed to a continuous increase in the efficiency of photovoltaic (PV) devices.
Graphene is a unique two-dimensional (2D) structure of monolayer carbon atoms packed into a dense honeycomb crystal that has attracted great interest due to its diverse and fascinating properties.
Electronically, it behaves as a wide band gap (3.2 eV) semiconductor and exhibits memristor properties.2 Optically, TiO2 has high opacity with a very high refractive index3 (>2.4), and it exhibits strong absorbance in the UV range.
The production of hydrogen by catalytic water splitting is important for a wide range of industries including renewable energy petroleum refining and for the production of methanol and ammonia in the chemical industry.
Professor Ebrahimi and Professor Robinson (Pennsylvania State University, USA) summarize recent advances in the synthesis of these 2D materials, resulting material properties, and related applications in biosensing of neurotransmitters, metabolites, proteins, nucleic acids, bacterial cells, and heavy metals.