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≥98% (EmM/453 = 60), powder

Hemetoidin, Bile pigment
Empirical Formula (Hill Notation):
CAS Number:
Molecular Weight:
EC Number:
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PubChem Substance ID:


mixed isomers


≥98% (EmM/453 = 60)




aqueous acid: soluble
aqueous base: soluble
benzene: soluble
chloroform: soluble

storage temp.


SMILES string




InChI key


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General description

Bilirubin, an end product of heme catabolism, forms from the breakdown of erythrocyte hemoglobin in the reticuloendothelial system. Heme oxygenase converts the heme of hemoglobin to biliverdin, and subsequently an NADPH-dependent biliverdin reductase converts biliverdin to bilirubin.

Bilirubin is commonly found bound to serum albumin, when circulating in blood, in its dianion form. Bilirubin is also associated with bile salts, in its monoanion form.

Disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may occur due to increased bilirubin synthesis or decreased bilirubin clearance.


Bilirubin has been used:
  • in phantom preparation
  • in in vitro experiments
  • in the preparation of bilirubin solutions for infusion


1, 5 g in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Well over 99% of total bilirubin is transported as a conjugate with albumin. Abnormally high levels of bilirubin can cause severe neurological damage, but mildly elevated levels are linked to protection from oxidative stress.
Bilirubin has been studied for its properties as an endogenous antioxidant, such as for its capabilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to inhibit NADPH-oxidase activity. It appears to function as an efficient peroxyl radical scavenger, protecting membrane lipids from oxidation by these radicals. At nanomolar concentrations it has been shown to protect neurons from oxidative damage.

Other Notes

A major component of hemoglobin decomposition. The principal pigment of bile, and the yellow color in jaundice.
Tandem Mass Spectrometry data independently generated by Scripps Center for Metabolomics is available to view or download in PDF. B4126.pdf Tested metabolites are featured on Scripps Center for Metabolomics METLIN Metabolite Database. To learn more, visit


Protect from light.

Storage Class Code

13 - Non Combustible Solids



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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Inherited disorders of bilirubin clearance
Memon N, et al.
Pediatric Research, 79(3), 378-378 (2016)
Bhargavi Kamineni et al.
Journal of tropical pediatrics, 66(6), 630-636 (2020-05-21)
Early diagnosis and appropriate management of neonatal jaundice is crucial in avoiding severe hyperbilirubinemia and brain injury. A low-cost, minimally invasive, point-of-care (PoC) tool for total bilirubin (TB) estimation which can be useful across all ranges of bilirubin values and
Photoacoustic microscopy of bilirubin in tissue phantoms
Zhou y, et al.
Journal of Biomedical Optics, 17(12), 126019-126019 (2012)
Sem J Aronson et al.
Molecular therapy. Methods & clinical development, 18, 250-258 (2020-07-09)
Potency assessment of clinical-grade vector lots is crucial to support adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector release and is required for future marketing authorization. We have developed and validated a cell-based, quantitative potency assay that detects both transgenic expression and activity of
Changes in the auditory brainstem response associated with intravenous infusion of unconjugated bilirubin into infant rhesus monkeys
Ahlfors C E, et al.
Pediatric Research, 20(6), 511-511 (1986)

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