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F3665

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

FITC conjugate

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

conjugate

FITC conjugate

form

lyophilized powder

extent of labeling

2-10 μg FITC per mg LPS

solubility

H2O: soluble 4.90-5.10 mg/mL, faintly hazy to hazy, pale yellow to yellow

storage temp.

2-8°C

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Application

FITC-Lipopolysaccharides (FITC-LPS) may be used to study processes such as the movement/transport of LPS across tissue barriers such as the colonic epithelium and cellular binding and internalization of lipopolysaccharides with fluorescence-based assay systems. It may be used to evaluate, qualify and quantify lipopolysaccharides (LPS) removal reagents and procedures. FITC-LPS conjugate may be used for the detection of LPA binding proteins and motifs.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, yellow to orange solution. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution. For cell culture use, LPS should be reconstituted by adding 1 ml of sterile balanced salt solution or cell culture medium to a vial (1 mg) and swirling gently until the powder dissolves. Solutions can be further diluted to the desired working concentration with additional sterile balanced salt solutions or cell culture media.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Yannick Boege et al.
Cancer cell, 32(3), 342-359 (2017-09-13)
Concomitant hepatocyte apoptosis and regeneration is a hallmark of chronic liver diseases (CLDs) predisposing to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we mechanistically link caspase-8-dependent apoptosis to HCC development via proliferation- and replication-associated DNA damage. Proliferation-associated replication stress, DNA damage, and genetic
Li Liu et al.
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 19(12), 2728-2740 (2015-08-21)
It remains unclear whether and how cardiomyocytes contribute to the inflammation in chronic heart failure (CHF). We recently reviewed the capacity of cardiomyocytes to initiate inflammation, by means of expressing certain immune receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) that respond
Saurabh Srivastava et al.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(6), 2457-2466 (2013-03-13)
Temporin L (TempL) is a 13-residue frog antimicrobial peptide that shows moderate bactericidal activity and antiendotoxin properties in macrophages. We envisioned that, due to its very hydrophobic nature, the peptide might fail to show its desired biological properties. It was
Bin Li et al.
International journal of molecular sciences, 15(1), 1143-1161 (2014-01-21)
Innate immunity is the first line of defense in human beings against pathogen infection; monocytes/macrophages are the primary cells of the innate immune system. Recently, macrophages/monocytes have been discovered to participate in LPS clearance, and the clearance efficiency determines the
Baomei Shao et al.
Innate immunity, 18(6), 825-833 (2012-03-24)
Much evidence indicates that bacterial LPS (endotoxin) is removed from the bloodstream mainly by the liver, yet the hepatic uptake mechanisms remain uncertain and controversial. In plasma, LPS can be either 'free' (as aggregates, bacterial membrane fragments or loosely bound

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