Merck
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G2133

Sigma-Aldrich

Glucose Oxidase from Aspergillus niger

Type VII, lyophilized powder, ≥100,000 units/g solid (without added oxygen)

Synonym(s):
G.Od., β-D-Glucose:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase, GOx
CAS Number:
Enzyme Commission number:
EC Number:
MDL number:

Quality Level

type

Type VII

form

lyophilized powder

specific activity

≥100,000 units/g solid (without added oxygen)

mol wt

160 kDa

does not contain

extender

composition

Protein, ≥60%

application(s)

diagnostic assay manufacturing

foreign activity

Catalase ≤10 Sigma units/mg protein

shipped in

wet ice

storage temp.

−20°C

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General description

Molecular Weight: 160 kDa (gel filtration)
pI: 4.2
Extinction coefficient: E1% = 16.7 (280 nm)

Glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger is a dimer consisting of 2 equal subunits with a molecular mass of 80 kDa each. Each subunit contains one flavin adenine dinulceotide moiety and one iron. The enzyme is a glycoprotein containing ~16% neutral sugar and 2% amino sugars. The enzyme also contains 3 cysteine residues and 8 potential sites for N-linked glycosylation.

Glucose oxidase is capable of oxidizing D-aldohexoses, monodeoxy-D-glucoses, and methyl-D-glucoses at varying rates.

The pH optimum for glucose oxidase is 5.5, while it has a broad activity range of pH 4-7. Glucose oxidase is specific for β-D-glucose with a KM of 33-110 mM.

Glucose oxidase does not require any activators, but it is inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, phenylmercuric acetate, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. It is not inhibited by the nonmetallic SH reagents: N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate, and iodoacetamide.

Glucose oxidase can be utilized in the enzymatic determination of D-glucose in solution. As glucose oxidase oxidizes β-D-glucose to D-gluconolactate and hydrogen peroxide, horseradish peroxidase is often used as the coupling enzyme for glucose determination. Although glucose oxidase is specific for β-D-glucose, solutions of D-glucose can be quantified as α-D-glucose will mutorotate to β-D-glucose as the β-D-glucose is consumed by the enzymatic reaction.

Application

Several publications cite use of the G2133 glucose oxidase in their protocols and in various applications, such as the following:
a) Biosensor development:
  • Diazoresin nanofilm coatings on alginate microspheres: Srivastava, R. et al., Biotechnol. Bioeng., 91(1), 124-131 (2005).
  • Paper-based glucose biosensor: Lankelma, J. et al., Anal. Chem., 84(9), 417-4152 (2012)
  • Microfluidic device with glucose oxidase immobilized on hydrogel for glucose analysis of blood: He, R.-Y. et al., RSC Adv., 9, 32367-32374 (2019).
b) Single-molecule FRET study of human RAD51 filament formation: Subramanyam, S. et al., Methods Enzymol., 600, 201-232 (2018).
c) Enzymatic fuel-cells with chitosan-based membranes: Bahar, T., and Yazici, M.S., Electroanalysis, 32(6), 1304-1314 (2020).
Glucose oxidase is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as well as a major component of glucose biosensors.

Biochem/physiol Actions

Glucose oxidase catalyses the oxidation of β-d-glucose to d-glucono-β-lactone and hydrogen peroxide, with molecular oxygen as an electron acceptor.

Quality

May contain traces of amylase, maltase, glycogenase, invertase, and galactose oxidase.

Unit Definition

One unit will oxidize 1.0 μmole of β-D-glucose to D-gluconolactone and H2O2 per min at pH 5.1 at 35 °C, equivalent to an O2 uptake of 22.4 μl per min. If the reaction mixture is saturated with oxygen, the activity may increase by up to 100%.

Physical form

Lyophilized powder containing phosphate buffer salts and sodium chloride

Analysis Note

Protein determined by biuret.

Pictograms

Health hazard

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Resp. Sens. 1

Storage Class Code

11 - Combustible Solids

WGK

WGK 1

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

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Certificate of Origin

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More Documents

Quotes and Ordering

Komal Sodhi et al.
Scientific reports, 8(1), 9721-9721 (2018-06-28)
As aging involves oxidant injury, we examined the role of the recently described Na/K-ATPase oxidant amplification loop (NKAL). First, C57Bl6 old mice were given a western diet to stimulate oxidant injury or pNaKtide to antagonize the NKAL. The western diet
Feng Liu et al.
The Journal of investigative dermatology, 129(2), 422-431 (2008-10-31)
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MiTF) is a key transcription factor for melanocyte lineage survival. Most previous work on this gene has been focused on its role in development. A role in carcinogenesis has emerged recently, but the mechanism is unclear. We
Amjad Askary et al.
Nature biotechnology, 38(1), 66-75 (2019-11-20)
Molecular barcoding technologies that uniquely identify single cells are hampered by limitations in barcode measurement. Readout by sequencing does not preserve the spatial organization of cells in tissues, whereas imaging methods preserve spatial structure but are less sensitive to barcode
Hua Zhang et al.
Cancer cell, 37(1), 37-54 (2019-12-31)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is a central regulator of the cell cycle and gene transcription. However, little is known about its impact on genomic instability and cancer immunity. Using a selective CDK7 inhibitor, YKL-5-124, we demonstrated that CDK7 inhibition predominately
Guangqing Xu et al.
Analytica chimica acta, 755, 100-107 (2012-11-14)
A novel glucose biosensor, based on the modification of well-aligned polypyrrole nanowires array (PPyNWA) with Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) and subsequent surface adsorption of glucose oxidase (GOx), is described. The distinct differences in the electrochemical properties of PPyNWA-GOx, PPyNWA-PtNPs, and PPyNWA-PtNPs-GOx

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