All Photos(2)

L2143

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli K-235

purified by phenol extraction

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (K-235)

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

phenol extraction

impurities

<3% Protein (Lowry)

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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General description

This product is phenol extracted from E. coli serotype K235. The source strain is ATCC 13027.

Packaging

10 mg in poly bottle
25, 100 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Jay W Chaplin et al.
The Journal of experimental medicine, 210(10), 2135-2146 (2013-09-11)
Antigen (Ag) targeting is an efficient way to induce immune responses. Ag is usually coupled to an antibody (Ab) specific for a receptor expressed on dendritic cells (DCs), and then the Ag-anti-receptor is inoculated with an adjuvant. Here we report
Agnieszka Zdybicka-Barabas et al.
Amino acids, 51(2), 175-191 (2018-09-01)
Cecropins constitute an important family of insect antimicrobial peptides involved in humoral innate immune response. In comparison with the highly basic cecropins A and B, cecropins D are less cationic and more hydrophobic. Interestingly, cecropins D were described only in
Jessica F Hoffman et al.
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 36(39), 10039-10049 (2016-09-30)
Identifying and understanding critical periods in brain development is essential to decoding the long-term impact of widespread, poorly defined, and frequently occurring insults such as inflammation. Using the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus, we have discovered a narrowly constrained critical period
Jay W Chaplin et al.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 187(8), 4199-4209 (2011-09-16)
CD180 is homologous to TLR4 and regulates TLR4 signaling, yet its function is unclear. We report that injection of anti-CD180 mAb into mice induced rapid Ig production of all classes and subclasses, with the exception of IgA and IgG2b, with
Stefka Gyoneva et al.
Glia, 62(8), 1345-1360 (2014-05-09)
Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a "resting" state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an "activated" state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in

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