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L2630

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by phenol extraction

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

phenol extraction

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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General description

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. A typical LPS molecule has lipid A (a glucosamine-based phospholipid), a relatively short core oligosaccharide and a distal polysaccharide (O-antigen). LPSs contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics. They stimulate host cells via TLR2 and TLR4 (toll like receptors). This stimulation results in the generation of various proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα (tumor necrosis factor), IL-1 (interleukin 1) and IL-6.
This product is phenol extracted from Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS (nitric oxide synthase) in human hepatocytes.

Application

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Escherichia coli O111:B4 have been used for the stimulation of macrophages. They have been used for LPS preconditioning in mice.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Packaging

10, 25, 100 mg in poly bottle

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

  1. Which document(s) contains shelf-life or expiration date information for a given product?

    If available for a given product, the recommended re-test date or the expiration date can be found on the Certificate of Analysis.

  2. How do I get lot-specific information or a Certificate of Analysis?

    The lot specific COA document can be found by entering the lot number above under the "Documents" section.

  3. How do I find price and availability?

    There are several ways to find pricing and availability for our products. Once you log onto our website, you will find the price and availability displayed on the product detail page. You can contact any of our Customer Sales and Service offices to receive a quote.  USA customers:  1-800-325-3010 or view local office numbers.

  4. What is the Department of Transportation shipping information for this product?

    Transportation information can be found in Section 14 of the product's (M)SDS.To access the shipping information for this material, use the link on the product detail page for the product. 

  5. How concentrated a stock solution can I make of Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?

    One can try to make a 20 mg/mL solution at 70-80°C in saline, with vortexing and warming.  However, the solution will be hazy, because of the nature of LPS to form micelles in solutions like water or PBS.

  6. What is the importance of the "purified by phenol extraction" description for Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?

    Different extraction methods for LPS leave different levels of potential nucleic acid and protein contaminations.  Phenol extraction can leave up to 60% RNA and <1% protein present.

  7. What is the molecular weight of Product L2630, Lipopolysaccarides (LPS)?

    We have not determined the molecular weight of this item. One reference, J. Biol. Chem., 250, 2911 (1975), states approximate values of 90,000 and 0.9-1.5 million, by both sedimentation velocity and gel filtration, for two forms of LPS that may be present.

  8. My question is not addressed here, how can I contact Technical Service for assistance?

    Ask a Scientist here.

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Tsatsanis C et al.
Journal of Cellular Physiology, 210, 774-774 (2007)
Aya Yanagawa et al.
PloS one, 12(11), e0185370-e0185370 (2017-11-10)
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper...
Tingting Wang et al.
Journal of gastroenterology, 54(9), 804-818 (2019-05-01)
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic inflammation in the colon and epigenetic factors underlying the occurrence. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been under intensive focus due to the circular construct and gene-regulating functions. However, the changes and roles of circRNAs...
Jianbo Yu et al.
Anesthesiology, 125(6), 1190-1201 (2016-08-31)
Sepsis-associated acute lung injury remains the major cause of mortality in critically ill patients and is characterized by marked oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dynamics are indispensable for functional integrity. Additionally, heme oxygenase (HO)-1/carbon monoxide conferred cytoprotection against end-organ...
G Forn-Cuní et al.
Scientific reports, 7, 41905-41905 (2017-02-06)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio), largely used as a model for studying developmental processes, has also emerged as a valuable system for modelling human inflammatory diseases. However, in a context where even mice have been questioned as a valid model for these...

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