All Photos(2)

L2637

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O55:B5

purified by gel-filtration chromatography

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O55:B5)

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

gel-filtration chromatography

impurities

<3% Protein

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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General description

This product is extracted from E. coli serotype O55:B5 and purified by gel filtration. The source strain is CDC 1644-70. The LPS O55:B5 has been used to stimulate human peritoneal macrophages at 1 ng/ml and to stimulate equine peritoneal macrophages at 1-100 ng/ml.

Packaging

5, 10, 25 mg in glass bottle

Application

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US),Eyeshields,Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Yunru Ren et al.
Water research, 154, 153-161 (2019-02-21)
Aerosolized reclaimed water can cause inflammatory responses in lung after inhalation, and endotoxin has been identified as the main inducer. Since the effects of disinfection treatments on endotoxins had conflicting results, this study explored the changes of endotoxin activity and...
John Bienenstock et al.
PloS one, 8(10), e76236-e76236 (2013-10-08)
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) are being studied by different groups exploring a broad range of potential beneficial effects to the breastfed infant. Many of these effects have been attributed to a growth promotion effect on certain gut organisms such as...
Francisco J Quintana et al.
PloS one, 3(10), e3509-e3509 (2008-10-24)
B-cells integrate antigen-specific signals transduced via the B-cell receptor (BCR) and antigen non-specific co-stimulatory signals provided by cytokines and CD40 ligation in order to produce IgG antibodies. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) also provide co-stimulation, but the requirement for TLRs to generate...
J Vier et al.
Cell death & disease, 7, e2103-e2103 (2016-02-20)
Neutrophil granulocytes are innate effector cells of the first line of defense against pyogenic bacteria. Neutrophil lifespan is short, is prolonged by pro-inflammatory stimuli, controls functionality of the cells and can determine tissue damage. Experimental analysis of primary neutrophils is...
Zili Zhai et al.
Inflammation, 36(2), 346-354 (2012-10-12)
The nitrone spin trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) is commonly used to study free radicals. Due to its free radical trapping properties, DMPO is thought to reduce free radial-mediated oxidative damage and other related cellular responses. The purpose of this study...

Related Content

Lipopolysaccharides

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is localized in the outer layer of the membrane and is, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface.

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