All Photos(2)

L4130

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by trichloroacetic acid extraction

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

trichloroacetic acid extraction

impurities

1-10% Protein (Lowry)

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

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General description

This product is TCA extracted from E. coli serotype O111:B4. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS in human hepatocytes.

Packaging

100, 500 mg in poly bottle

Application

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Tobias Hilbert et al.
PloS one, 8(5), e65024-e65024 (2013-06-01)
IFNA1 (interferon alpha) is a key cytokine regulating the activity of numerous immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as natural interferon-producing cells play critical roles as sensors of pathogens and link innate to adaptive immunity. CpG motifs within DNA sequences...
Wei Yao et al.
European journal of pharmacology, 793, 21-27 (2016-11-07)
The Nuclear factor (erythroid 2-derived)-like 2 (Nrf2) plays a key role in inflammation which is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. The Nrf2 activators have antidepressant effects in animal models of depression. The present study was undertaken to examine whether...
Lijia Chang et al.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 932-937 (2018-06-13)
Although previous reports suggest sex-specific differences in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine, these differences in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, are unknown. Saline or (R)-ketamine was administered 23 hours post lipopolysaccharide administration to adult...
Marie Hilderman et al.
Clinical kidney journal, 8(5), 599-605 (2015-09-29)
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) modulates inflammatory responses through the vagus nerve and the α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages and immune cells. Sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance and chronic inflammation are both linked to poor outcome in dialysis patients. The aim of...
A Bruchfeld et al.
Journal of internal medicine, 268(1), 94-101 (2010-03-27)
The central nervous system regulates innate immunity in part via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a neural circuit that transmits signals in the vagus nerve that suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production by an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7nAChR) dependent mechanism. Vagus nerve...

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