All Photos(2)



Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

purified by trichloroacetic acid extraction

EC Number:
MDL number:

Quality Level

biological source

Escherichia coli (O111:B4)


lyophilized powder

purified by

trichloroacetic acid extraction


1-10% Protein (Lowry)

shipped in


storage temp.


Looking for similar products? Visit Product Comparison Guide

Related Categories

General description

This product is TCA extracted from E. coli serotype O111:B4. The source strain is from a private collection. This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS in human hepatocytes.


100, 500 mg in poly bottle


Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.


Skull and crossbones

Signal Word


Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials



Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Lijia Chang et al.
The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 21(10), 932-937 (2018-06-13)
Although previous reports suggest sex-specific differences in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine, these differences in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, are unknown. Saline or (R)-ketamine was administered 23 hours post lipopolysaccharide administration to adult
Marie Hilderman et al.
Clinical kidney journal, 8(5), 599-605 (2015-09-29)
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) modulates inflammatory responses through the vagus nerve and the α-7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) on macrophages and immune cells. Sympathetic/parasympathetic imbalance and chronic inflammation are both linked to poor outcome in dialysis patients. The aim of
A Bruchfeld et al.
Journal of internal medicine, 268(1), 94-101 (2010-03-27)
The central nervous system regulates innate immunity in part via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a neural circuit that transmits signals in the vagus nerve that suppress pro-inflammatory cytokine production by an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7nAChR) dependent mechanism. Vagus nerve
Jun-Yan Liu et al.
Biochemical pharmacology, 79(6), 880-887 (2009-11-10)
Inflammation is a multi-staged process whose expansive phase is thought to be driven by acutely released arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolites. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), or soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is known to be anti-inflammatory. Inhibition of
Tobias Hilbert et al.
PloS one, 8(5), e65024-e65024 (2013-06-01)
IFNA1 (interferon alpha) is a key cytokine regulating the activity of numerous immune cells. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) as natural interferon-producing cells play critical roles as sensors of pathogens and link innate to adaptive immunity. CpG motifs within DNA sequences

Our team of scientists has experience in all areas of research including Life Science, Material Science, Chemical Synthesis, Chromatography, Analytical and many others.

Contact Technical Service