L4391

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4

γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.75

Quality Level

sterility

γ-irradiated

product line

BioXtra

form

lyophilized powder

purified by

gel-filtration chromatography

storage condition

desiccated

application(s)

cell culture | mammalian: suitable

impurities

<1% Protein (Lowry)

solubility

H2O: 5 mg/mL, slightly hazy

storage temp.

2-8°C

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Application

This LPS serotype has been used to stimulate B-cells and induce NOS in human hepatocytes.
Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a member of the Toll-like receptor protein family, which recognizes common pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMPs).

Packaging

1 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

LPS is a major constituent of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. LPS also acts as a specific mitogen for bone marrow derived B lymphocytes from mice, rabbits, chickens, cows, hamsters, and humans.

Reconstitution

Lipopolysaccharides are supplied as lyophilized, γ-irradiated powders. To reconstitute, add 1 ml sterile balanced salt solution or tissue culture medium to the vial (1 mg) and gently swirl until the powder dissolves. Reconstituted product may be further diluted to desired working concentrations using sterile balanced salt solution or tissue culture medium.

pictograms

Skull and crossbones

signalword

Danger

hcodes

hazcat

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

storage_class_code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK Germany

WGK 3

Flash Point F

Not applicable

Flash Point C

Not applicable

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Jennifer Vandooren et al.
Haematologica, 102(10), 1671-1682 (2017-08-05)
Lipopolysaccharides or endotoxins elicit an excessive host inflammatory response and lead to life-threatening conditions such as endotoxemia and septic shock. Lipopolysaccharides trigger mobilization and stimulation of leukocytes and exaggerated production of pro-inflammatory molecules including cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Matrix metalloproteinase-9...
Kelly L Brown et al.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 186(9), 5497-5505 (2011-03-29)
The human cathelicidin peptide, LL-37, is a host defense peptide with a wide range of immunomodulatory activities and modest direct antimicrobial properties. LL-37 can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects and can modulate the proinflammatory responses of human peripheral blood...
Chuan Yan et al.
Journal of hepatology, 63(2), 420-428 (2015-04-02)
Chronic inflammation is a major etiological factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but how immune cells respond in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis remains uncharacterized. This study aims to investigate the response and roles of neutrophils in early hepatocarcinogenesis. By inducible expression...
Wei Shao et al.
The Journal of biological chemistry, 282(50), 36321-36329 (2007-10-26)
Caspase-1 is an essential effector of inflammation, pyroptosis, and septic shock. Few caspase-1 substrates have been identified to date, and these substrates do not account for its wide range of actions. To understand the function of caspase-1, we initiated the...
Christopher R Shaler et al.
PLoS biology, 15(6), e2001930-e2001930 (2017-06-21)
Superantigens (SAgs) are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome...
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