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L9641

Sigma-Aldrich

Lipopolysaccharides (rough strains) from Escherichia coli EH100 (Ra mutant)

Synonym(s):
LPS
EC Number:
MDL number:
NACRES:
NA.25

biological source

Escherichia coli (EH100 Ra mutant)

Quality Level

form

lyophilized powder

impurities

<3% Protein (Lowry)

shipped in

ambient

storage temp.

2-8°C

Related Categories

General description

This product is phenol:chloroform:petroleum ether extracted from E. coli EH 100 (Ra mutant). The source strain is from a private collection.

Packaging

5, 10 mg in glass bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are localized in the outer layer of the membrane and are, in noncapsulated strains, exposed on the cell surface. They contribute to the integrity of the outer membrane, and protect the cell against the action of bile salts and lipophilic antibiotics.

Preparation Note

Prepared by phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether extraction.

The product is soluble in water (5 mg/ml) or cell culture medium (1 mg/ml) yielding a hazy, faint yellow solution. A more concentrated, though still hazy, solution (20 mg/ml) has been achieved in aqueous saline after vortexing and warming to 70-80 oC. Lipopolysaccharides are molecules that form micelles in every solvent. Hazy solutions are observed in water and phosphate buffered saline. Organic solvents do not give clearer solutions. Methanol yields a turbid suspension with floaters, while water yields a homogeneously hazy solution.

Pictograms

Skull and crossbones

Signal Word

Danger

Hazard Statements

Hazard Classifications

Acute Tox. 2 Oral

Storage Class Code

6.1A - Combustible, acute toxic Cat. 1 and 2 / very toxic hazardous materials

WGK

WGK 3

Flash Point(F)

Not applicable

Flash Point(C)

Not applicable

Personal Protective Equipment

dust mask type N95 (US), Eyeshields, Gloves

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Zhujun Yi et al.
Frontiers in immunology, 11, 595316-595316 (2021-02-06)
Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is a key glycolysis enzyme, and its effect on macrophages has not been entirely elucidated. Here, we identified that the PKM2 small-molecule agonist TEPP-46 mediated PKM2 activation by inducing the formation of PKM2 tetramer and promoted
Ji Hyung Kim et al.
PloS one, 7(9), e45348-e45348 (2012-10-03)
During interaction with APCs, invariant (i) NKT cells are thought to be indirectly activated by TLR4-dependently activated APCs. However, whether TLR4 directly activates iNKT cells is unknown. Therefore, the expression and function of TLR4 in iNKT cells were investigated. Flow
Kelly M DeMars et al.
Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 497(1), 410-415 (2018-02-16)
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are essential to pro-inflammatory gene transcription. The BET family proteins, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and testis-specific BRDT, couple chromatin remodeling to gene transcription, acting as histone acetyltransferases, scaffolds for transcription complexes, and markers of histone acetylation.
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