Oleic acid is a mono-unsaturated omega-9 fatty acid created by dehydrogenation of stearic acid. It is then further dehydrogenated and elongated to create members of the n-9 family of fatty acids. Oleic acid is not an essential fatty acid (EFA); however, providing it to cells in culture reduces energy demand.
Oleic acid mediates complete oxidation of fatty acid in sirtuin1- proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator−1α (SIRT1-PGC-1α) signalling pathway. Oleic acid shows anti-inflammatory properties related to atherosclerosis and insulin resistant state. Oleic acid inhibits permeability in gap junctions and promotes glucose uptake in astrocytes. Oleic acid aids in neural cell proliferation by increasing glucose uptake and by protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Oleic acid is essential for axonal growth and neuronal clustering.
Uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. Inhibits 2,4-dinitrophenol−stimulated ATPase. Action reversed by adding serum albumin.
Activates protein kinase C in hepatocytes.