High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), also known as high-mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1) and amphoterin, is a member of the HMGB family consisting of three members, HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3. HMGB1 is a non-histone architectural chromosomal protein ubiquitously present in all vertebrate nuclei and binds double-stranded DNA without sequence specificity. However, it can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. The protein is secreted by activated monocytes and macrophages. HMGB1 is from the high mobility group protein super family. The gene is mapped to human chromosome 13q12.
HMGB1 (high-mobility group protein B1) has been used to identify factors masking HMGB1 in human serum and plasma. It has been used to study HMGB1-mediated growth and motility in papillary thyroid cancer cells.
HMGB1/HMG1 human has been used as a positive control to analyse the expression of purified HMGB1 gene.
In the nucleus, HMGB1 (high-mobility group protein B1) works as a nucleosome stabilizer and transcriptional regulator. It also exhibits chaperone-like activity and suppresses aggregation of polyglutamine. It is also involved in inflammation and autophagy. HMGB1 can interacts with toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin-1β, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) molecules. It also works as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP). The mechanism of inflammation and damage is binding to TLR4, which mediates HMGB1-dependent activation of macrophage cytokine release. This positions HMGB1 at the intersection of sterile and infectious inflammatory responses. HMGB1 has been studied as a DNA vaccine adjuvant and a target for cancer therapy. In presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, HMGB1 is upregulated and is responsible for the proliferation of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. It is involved in cancer cell migration and invasion.
Lyophilized from 0.22 μm filtered solution in PBS. Generally 5-8% Mannitol or trehalose is added as a protectant before lyophilization.
Centrifuge the vial prior to opening. Reconstitute in sterile PBS, pH 7.4 to a concentration of 50 μg/mL. Do not vortex. This solution can be stored at 2-8°C for up to 1 month. For extended storage, it is recommended to store at -20°C.