Sodium chloride (NaCl) is an essential salt for normal body functions in humans and animals. It is crucial for maintaining plasma osmolality and the extracellular fluid volume of the body. Excess of NaCl leads to elevated blood pressure, which has implications on cardiovascular and renal diseases. NaCl is a basic component of microbiological medium, specifically for the culturing of halophiles. Sterile NaCl is a constituent of eye drop solutions.