Stress-adapted wild plants are natural sources of novel genes for molecular breeding. Here, we conducted a transcriptional analysis of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica Litv, an evergreen pine in northeastern China, to identify a novel CALMODULIN-LIKE protein-encoding gene, PsCML1, no significant homologs found in other plant species. PsCML1 encodes a protein predicted to have a single trans-membrane domain at its N-terminal. Four EF-hand motifs (calcium [Ca]-binding structures) are located at its C-terminal and showed Ca2+-specific affinity in isothermal titration calorimetric analysis. Transient expression of PsCML1 in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that the PsCML1 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Heterologous expression of PsCML1 in Arabidopsis significantly promoted seedling growth, and increased resistance to stress from NaCl and Ca2+ deficiency. The roots of the transgenic seedlings had higher contents of cellulose and pectin, but less hemicellulose than those of the wild type (WT). The biosynthesis of cell wall components is linked with protein glycosylation in the ER and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. No significant difference was found in the extent of protein glycosylation between the transgenic and WT plants. However, the transgenic roots had higher steady-state levels of ROS, NADPH oxidase activity, and endo-membrane dynamics than those of the WT. A working model was proposed to delineate the interaction among Ca2+, ROS homeostasis, and cell wall loosening-dependent cell division.