Nardostachys jatamansi contains various types of sesquiterpenoids that may play an important role in the potency of plant's anti-inflammatory effects, depending on their structure. In this study, five new sesquiterpenoids, namely kanshone L (1), kanshone M (2), 7-methoxydesoxo-narchinol (3), kanshone N (4), and nardosdaucanol (5), were isolated along with four known terpenoids (kanshone D (6), nardosinanone G (7), narchinol A (8), and nardoaristolone B (9)) from the rhizomes and roots of Nardostachys jatamansi. Their structures were determined by analyzing 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Among the nine sesquiterpenoids, compounds 3, 4, and 8 were shown to possess dose-dependent inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, compounds 3, 4, and 8 exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, these compounds were shown to inhibit the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκB-α and blocking NF-κB translocation. In conclusion, five new and four known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from Nardostachys jatamansi, and compounds 3, 4, and 8 exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells through inhibiting of NF-κB signaling pathway.