The chick kidney mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase was partially purified by sequential polyethylene glycol precipitation, aminohexyl-Sepharose 4B, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The specific activity of the final preparation, when reconstituted with NADPH, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase, was 245 pmol/min/mg of protein or 0.56 pmol/min/pmol of P-450. The specific cytochrome P-450 content was 0.45-0.73 nmol/mg of protein. BALB/c mice immunized with this preparation developed serum polyclonal antibodies to the 24-hydroxylase, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation. Splenic lymphocytes from an immunized mouse were fused with myeloma NSI/1-Ag-4-1 cells, and hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies to the 24-hydroxylase were detected by immunoprecipitation. The hybridoma lines were cloned by limiting dilution and further characterized as IgG1, IgG3, and IgM subclasses. In one-dimensional immunoblots of soluble 24-hydroxylase preparations, the monoclonal antibodies revealed a single band with an apparent molecular weight of 59,000. The monoclonal antibodies did not cross-react with cytochrome P-450s from other species but immunoprecipitated and immunoblotted a soluble chick renal mitochondrial 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase preparation, demonstrating the close similarity of these two hydroxylases. These antibodies were coupled to Sepharose CL-4B and used to isolate to homogeneity the two enzymes from chick kidney mitochondria. Amino-terminal sequences and amino acid composition data demonstrate that these enzymes are different but homologous.