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Self-diffusion of a highly concentrated monoclonal antibody by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: insight into protein-protein interactions and self-association.

Soft matter (2019-08-08)
Jessica J Hung, Wade F Zeno, Amjad A Chowdhury, Barton J Dear, Kishan Ramachandran, Maria P Nieto, Tony Y Shay, Carl A Karouta, Carl C Hayden, Jason K Cheung, Thomas M Truskett, Jeanne C Stachowiak, Keith P Johnston
ABSTRACT

The dynamic behavior of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at high concentration provides insight into protein microstructure and protein-protein interactions (PPI) that influence solution viscosity and protein stability. At high concentration, interpretation of the collective-diffusion coefficient Dc, as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), is highly challenging given the complex hydrodynamics and PPI at close spacings. In contrast, self-diffusion of a tracer particle by Brownian motion is simpler to understand. Herein, we develop fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) for the measurement of the long-time self-diffusion of mAb2 over a wide range of concentrations and viscosities in multiple co-solute formulations with varying PPI. The normalized self-diffusion coefficient D0/Ds (equal to the microscopic relative viscosity ηeff/η0) was found to be smaller than η/η0. Smaller ratios of the microscopic to macroscopic viscosity (ηeff/η) are attributed to a combination of weaker PPI and less self-association. The interaction parameters extracted from fits of D0/Ds with a length scale dependent viscosity model agree with previous measurements of PPI by SLS and SAXS. Trends in the degree of self-association, estimated from ηeff/η with a microviscosity model, are consistent with oligomer sizes measured by SLS. Finally, measurements of collective diffusion and osmotic compressibility were combined with FCS data to demonstrate that the changes in self-diffusion between formulations are due primarily to changes in the protein-protein friction in these systems, and not to protein-solvent friction. Thus, FCS is a robust and accessible technique for measuring mAb self-diffusion, and, by extension, microviscosity, PPI and self-association that govern mAb solution dynamics.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, lyophilized powder