Meiotic progression in S. pombe is regulated by stage-specific gene expression and translation, changes in RNA stability, expression of anti-sense transcripts, and targeted proteolysis of regulatory proteins. We have used SILAC labeling to examine the relative levels of proteins in diploid S. pombe cells during meiosis. Among the 3,268 proteins quantified at all time points, the levels of 880 proteins changed at least 2-fold; the majority of proteins showed stepwise increases or decreases during the meiotic divisions, while some changed transiently. Overall, we observed reductions in proteins involved in anabolism and increases in proteins involved in catabolism. We also observed increases in the levels of proteins of the ESCRT-III complex and revealed a role for ESCRT-III components in chromosome segregation and spore formation. Correlation with studies of meiotic gene expression and ribosome occupancy reveals that many of the changes in steady-state protein levels are post-transcriptional.