Endometriosis is a common multifactorial gynecological disorder defined as the proliferation of endometrial tissue outside of the uterine cavity. Neuroangiogenesis (co-recruitment of nerves and blood vessels) is believed to play an integral part in the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from abnormal endometrium may serve as the second identifier of endometriosis and play an important role in the development of endometriosis by regulating neuroangiogenesis. Primary human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) were isolated from eutopic endometrium (EmESC, n = 22) with endometriosis and normal endometrium (CoESC, n = 6). Exosomes were isolated from ESCs using the "standard" ultracentrifugation method, and the characterization of exosomes was identified through transmission electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. The role of exosomes in regulating neuroangiogenesis was determined through in vitro tube formation assay, neurite outgrowth assay, and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron apoptosis analysis. The data showed that EmESCs could secrete exosomes with a diameter of approximately 100 nm and a biconcave morphological feature; they were internalized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells and DRG neurons and enhanced neuroangiogenic effects. We further validated the role of exosomes through blocking experiments. We found that when the exosome secretion was blocked, the pro-neuroangiogenesis effects were decreased. In conclusion, these data suggested that exosomes may play a key role in endometriosis by promoting neuroangiogenesis.