Merck

The MAPK signaling cascade.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (1995-06-01)
R Seger, E G Krebs
ABSTRACT

The transmission of extracellular signals into their intracellular targets is mediated by a network of interacting proteins that regulate a large number of cellular processes. Cumulative efforts from many laboratories over the past decade have allowed the elucidation of one such signaling mechanism, which involves activations of several membranal signaling molecules followed by a sequential stimulation of several cytoplasmic protein kinases collectively known as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Up to six tiers in this cascade contribute to the amplification and specificity of the transmitted signals that eventually activate several regulatory molecules in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus to initiate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and development. Moreover, because many oncogenes have been shown to encode proteins that transmit mitogenic signals upstream of this cascade, the MAPK pathway provides a simple unifying explanation for the mechanism of action of most, if not all, nonnuclear oncogenes. The pattern of MAPK cascade is not restricted to growth factor signaling and it is now known that signaling pathways initiated by phorbol esters, ionophors, heat shock, and ligands for seven transmembrane receptors use distinct MAPK cascades with little or no cross-reactivity between them. In this review we emphasize primarily the first MAPK cascade to be discovered that uses the MEK and ERK isoforms and describe their involvement in different cellular processes.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP Kinase, Monophosphorylated Tyrosine antibody ,Mouse monoclonal, clone ERK-PY193, purified from hybridoma cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-MAP Kinase, Activated/monophosphorylated (Phosphothreonine ERK-1&2) antibody produced in mouse, ~2 mg/mL, clone ERK-PT115, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP Kinase (ERK-1, ERK-2) antibody produced in rabbit, whole antiserum
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP Kinase, Non-Phosphorylated ERK antibody, Mouse monoclonal, clone ERK-NP2, purified from hybridoma cell culture
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-phospho-ERK1 (pThr202/pTyr204) and ERK2 (pThr185/pTyr187) antibody produced in rabbit, affinity isolated antibody, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
MEK1 (EE), active, GST tagged from mouse, PRECISIO® Kinase, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥70% (SDS-PAGE), buffered aqueous glycerol solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP Kinase (ERK-1, 351-368) antibody produced in rabbit, IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Monoclonal Anti-MAP Kinase 2 (ERK-2) antibody produced in mouse, clone 1B3B9, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution
Sigma-Aldrich
MEK1, active, GST tagged human, PRECISIO® Kinase, recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected Sf9 cells, ≥70% (SDS-PAGE), buffered aqueous glycerol solution
Sigma-Aldrich
Anti-MAP Kinase, Activated (Diphosphorylated ERK-1&2) antibody, Mouse monoclonal, clone MAPK-YT, purified from hybridoma cell culture