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Proteasomal cysteine deubiquitinase inhibitor b-AP15 suppresses migration and induces apoptosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR (2019-11-07)
Liling Jiang, Yuening Sun, Jinxiang Wang, Qingyan He, Xinmei Chen, Xiaoying Lan, Jinghong Chen, Q Ping Dou, Xianping Shi, Jinbao Liu

The first line therapy for patients with diffuse large B cell (DLBCL) is R-CHOP. About half of DLBCL patients are either refractory to, or will relapse, after the treatment. Therefore, identifying novel drug targets and effective therapeutic agents is urgently needed for improving DLBCL patient survival. b-AP15, a selective small molecule inhibitor of proteasomal USP14 and UCHL5 deubiquitinases (DUBs), has shown selectivity and efficacy in several other types of cancer cells. This is the first study to report the effect of b-AP15 in DLBCL. Cell lines of two DLBCL subtypes, Germinal Center B Cell/ GCB (SU-DHL-4, OCI-LY-1, OCI-LY-19) and Activated B Cell/ABC (SU-DHL-2), were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured by MTS assay, proliferation by trypan blue exclusion staining assay, cellular apoptosis by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and mitochondrial outer membrane permeability assays, the activities of 20S proteasome peptidases by cleavage of specific fluorogenic substrates, and cell migration was detected by transwell assay in these GCB- and ABC-DLBCL cell lines. Mouse xenograft models of SU-DHL-4 and SU-DHL-2 cells were used to determine in vivo effects of b-AP15 in DLBCL tumors. b-AP15 inhibited proteasome DUB activities and activated cell death pathway, as evident by caspase activation and mitochondria apoptosis in GCB- and ABC- DLBCL cell lines. b-AP15 treatment suppressed migration of GCB- and ABC-DLBCL cells via inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin and TGFβ/Smad pathways. Additionally, b-AP15 significantly inhibited the growth of GCB- and ABC DLBCL in xenograft models. These results indicate that b-AP15 inhibits cell migration and induces apoptosis in GCB- and ABC-DLBCL cells, and suggest that inhibition of 19S proteasomal DUB should be a novel strategy for DLBCL treatment.

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