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Uremic metabolites impair skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics through disruption of the electron transport system and matrix dehydrogenase activity.

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology (2019-07-11)
Trace Thome, Zachary R Salyers, Ravi A Kumar, Dongwoo Hahn, Fabian N Berru, Leonardo F Ferreira, Salvatore T Scali, Terence E Ryan
ABSTRACT

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to increased skeletal muscle fatigue, weakness, and atrophy. Previous work has implicated mitochondria within the skeletal muscle as a mediator of muscle dysfunction in CKD; however, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in CKD are not entirely known. The purpose of this study was to define the impact of uremic metabolites on mitochondrial energetics. Skeletal muscle mitochondria were isolated from C57BL/6N mice and exposed to vehicle (DMSO) or varying concentrations of uremic metabolites: indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-acetic-acid, l-kynurenine, and kynurenic acid. A comprehensive mitochondrial phenotyping platform that included assessments of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) conductance and respiratory capacity, hydrogen peroxide production (JH2O2), matrix dehydrogenase activity, electron transport system enzyme activity, and ATP synthase activity was employed. Uremic metabolite exposure resulted in a ~25-40% decrease in OXPHOS conductance across multiple substrate conditions (P < 0.05, n = 5-6/condition), as well as decreased ADP-stimulated and uncoupled respiratory capacity. ATP synthase activity was not impacted by uremic metabolites; however, a screen of matrix dehydrogenases indicated that malate and glutamate dehydrogenases were impaired by some, but not all, uremic metabolites. Assessments of electron transport system enzymes indicated that uremic metabolites significantly impair complex III and IV. Uremic metabolites resulted in increased JH2O2 under glutamate/malate, pyruvate/malate, and succinate conditions across multiple levels of energy demand (all P < 0.05, n = 4/group). Disruption of mitochondrial OXPHOS was confirmed by decreased respiratory capacity and elevated superoxide production in cultured myotubes. These findings provide direct evidence that uremic metabolites negatively impact skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics, resulting in decreased energy transfer, impaired complex III and IV enzyme activity, and elevated oxidant production.

MATERIALS
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Product Description

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