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Application of a multiplex salivary immunoassay to detect sporadic incident norovirus infections.

Scientific reports (2019-12-22)
Timothy J Wade, Shannon M Griffin, Andrey I Egorov, Elizabeth Sams, Edward Hudgens, Swinburne Augustine, Stephanie DeFlorio-Barker, Trevor Plunkett, Alfred P Dufour, Jennifer N Styles, Kevin Oshima
ABSTRACT

Norovirus is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis. Following infection, anti-norovirus salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) rises steeply within 2 weeks and remains elevated for several months; this immunoconversion can serve as an indicator of infection. We used a multiplex salivary immunoassay to study norovirus infections among 483 visitors to a Lake Michigan beach in 2015. Saliva was collected on the day of the beach visit (S1); after 10-14 days (S2); and after 30-40 days (S3). Luminex microspheres were coupled to recombinant antigens of genogroup I (GI) and II (GII) noroviruses and incubated with saliva. Immunoconversion was defined as at least 4-fold increase in anti-norovirus IgG antibody response from S1 to S2 and a 3-fold increase from S1 to S3. Ten (2.1%) immunoconverted to either GI (2) or GII (8) norovirus. Among those who immunoconverted, 40% reported at least one gastrointestinal symptom and 33% reported diarrhea, compared to 15% (p = 0.06) and 8% (p = 0.04) among those who did not immunoconvert, respectively. The two participants who immunoconverted to GI norovirus both swallowed water during swimming (p = 0.08). This study demonstrated the utility of a non-invasive salivary immunoassay to detect norovirus infections and an efficient approach to study infectious agents in large cohorts.

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BRAND® 96-well microplate, U-bottom, round bottom, non-sterile