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Site-Directed Spin Labeling of RNA with a Gem-Diethylisoindoline Spin Label: PELDOR, Relaxation, and Reduction Stability.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) (2019-12-11)
Christine Wuebben, Simon Blume, Dinar Abdullin, Dominik Brajtenbach, Florian Haege, Stephanie Kath-Schorr, Olav Schiemann
ABSTRACT

Ribonucleic acid function is governed by its structure, dynamics, and interaction with other biomolecules and influenced by the local environment. Thus, methods are needed that enable one to study RNA under conditions as natural as possible, possibly within cells. Site-directed spin-labeling of RNA with nitroxides in combination with, for example, pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR or DEER) spectroscopy has been shown to provide such information. However, for in-cell measurements, the usually used gem-dimethyl nitroxides are less suited, because they are quickly reduced under in-cell conditions. In contrast, gem-diethyl nitroxides turned out to be more stable, but labeling protocols for binding these to RNA have been sparsely reported. Therefore, we describe here the bioconjugation of an azide functionalized gem-diethyl isoindoline nitroxide to RNA using a copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition ("click"-chemistry). The labeling protocol provides high yields and site selectivity. The analysis of the orientation selective PELDOR data show that the gem-diethyl and gem-dimethyl labels adopt similar conformations. Interestingly, in deuterated buffer, both labels attached to RNA yield TM relaxation times that are considerably longer than observed for the same type of label attached to proteins, enabling PELDOR time windows of up to 20 microseconds. Together with the increased stability in reducing environments, this label is very promising for in-cell Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies.

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Tris(3-hydroxypropyltriazolylmethyl)amine, 95%