Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a widely distributed animal trypanosomosis; it affects both domestic and wild mammals with high economic impact. Clinical picture is moderate in bovines but severe in equids. Surra is also an important constraint for international animal trade and movements. Despite its impact, surra remains poorly diagnosed because of low sensitivity tests. To improve epidemiological knowledge of the disease and to secure international movement, efficient diagnosis tools are required. Here, we optimized and applied to equids the OIE-recommended indirect ELISA T. evansi that was validated in other species. Based on 96 positive and 1,382 negative horse reference samples from Thailand, a TG-ROC analysis was conducted to define the cutoff value. ELISA's sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 97.5% and 100%, respectively, qualifying the test to provide a reliable immune status of equids. The test was then applied on 1,961 horse samples from 18 Thai Provinces; the only scarce positives suggested that horses do not constitute a reservoir of T. evansi in Thailand. All samples from racing horses were negative. Conversely, two outbreaks of surra reported to our laboratory, originating from a bovine reservoir, exhibited high morbidity and lethality rates in horses. Finally, posttreatment follow-ups of infected animals allowed us to provide outbreak management guidelines.