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Mould incidence and mycotoxin contamination in freshly harvested maize kernels originated from India.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture (2014-03-13)
Venkataramana Mudili, Chandra Nayaka Siddaih, Madhukar Nagesh, Phanikumar Garapati, Kalagatur Naveen Kumar, Harishchandra Sreepathi Murali, Tapani Yli Mattila, Harsh Vardan Batra
ABSTRACT

In this study, mould incidence and mycotoxin contamination were determined in freshly harvested maize samples collected from different agroclimatic regions of India. A total of 150 freshly harvested maize samples from major maize-growing areas of India (Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu) were collected during winter seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 to determine their toxigenic fungal incidences, and mycotoxins were analyzed and quantified by high-perfomance liquid chromatography. A total of 288 fungal isolates comprising Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species were tested for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol (DON) and T-2 toxin) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Chemotype determination of fungal isolates was carried out by molecular and chemical analysis through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-performance thin layer chromatography respectively. The diversity and distribution of the mycoflora among the studied samples were recorded in terms of frequency, density, importance value index and diversity indices. A total of 288 fungal isolates were recovered from the 150 maize samples, of which 28 were positive for AFB1, 20 for OTA, 58 for FB1, 23 for DON and 11 for T-2 toxin chemotypes by PCR. Species-specific PCR assays were in line with morphological analysis. Toxigenic fungal incidences were found throughout the study region, and most of the toxins under study exceeded the maximum legal limits. The range of observed toxin concentrations were 48-58 µg AFB1, 76-123 µg FB1, 38-50 µg T-2, 72-94 µg DON and <5 µg OTA kg⁻¹ grain sample. Owing to the high incidences of toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins in the study area, there is a need for the creation of mycotoxin awareness among maize farmers of India to control the chronic adverse health effects on humans and livestock due to mycotoxins.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Deoxynucleotide Mix, 10 mM, Molecular Biology Reagent
Sigma-Aldrich
Magnesium chloride solution, PCR Reagent, 25 mM MgCI2 solution for PCR