In this study, new polyurethanes (PUs) were prepared by using inulin and polycaprolactone as polyols. Their structure and morphology were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman dispersive spectroscopy, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and 13C NMR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), whereas their mechanical properties were evaluated by a universal testing machine. Additionally, their water uptake, swelling behavior, and degradation were evaluated to be used as drug delivery carriers. Therefore, an anti-cancer drug was loaded to these PUs with 25% of loading efficiency and its release behavior was studied using different theoretical models to unveil its mechanism. Finally, the ability of the new PUs to be used as a clip marker in breast biopsy was evaluated. The results clearly demonstrate that these PUs are safe and can be used as intelligent drug release matrices for targeted drug delivery and exhibits positive results to be used for clip marker and in general for breast cancer applications.