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Histone Deacetylases Regulation by δ-Opioids in Human Optic Nerve Head Astrocytes.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (2020-09-12)
Syed A H Zaidi, Nakul Thakore, Sudha Singh, Wendy Guzman, Shikhar Mehrotra, Vamsi Gangaraju, Shahid Husain
ABSTRACT

We determined whether δ-opioid receptor agonist (SNC-121) regulates acetylation homeostasis via controlling histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity and expression in optic nerve head (ONH) astrocytes. ONH astrocytes were treated with SNC-121 (1 µM) for 24 hours. The HDAC activity was measured using HDAC-specific fluorophore-conjugated synthetic substrates, Boc-Lys(Ac)-AMC and (Boc-Lys(Tfa)-AMC). Protein and mRNA expression of each HDAC was determined by Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR. IOP in rats was elevated by injecting 2.0 M hypertonic saline into the limbal veins. Delta opioid receptor agonist, SNC-121 (1 µM), treatment increased acetylation of histone H3, H2B, and H4 by 128 ± 3%, 45 ± 1%, and 68 ± 2%, respectively. The addition of Garcinol, a histone-acetyltransferase inhibitor, fully blocked SNC-121-induced histone H3 acetylation. SNC-121 reduced the activities of class I and IIb HDACs activities significantly (17 ± 3%) and this decrease in HDACs activities was fully blocked by a selective δ-opioid receptors antagonist, naltrindole. SNC-121 also decrease the mRNA expression of HDAC-3 and HDAC-6 by 19% and 18%, respectively. Furthermore, protein expression of HDAC 1, 2, 3, and 6 was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased by SNC-121 treatment. SNC-121 treatment also reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production from ONH astrocytes and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in the optic nerve of ocular hypertensive animals. We provided evidence that δ-opioid receptor agonist activation increased histone acetylation, decrease HDACs class I and class IIb activities, mRNA, and protein expression, lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production in ONH astrocytes. Our data also demonstrate that SNC-121 treatment decrease glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining in the optic nerves of animals with ocular hypertension.