The superoxide-generating Nox2 (NADPH oxidase-2) is expressed in multiple cell types. Previous studies demonstrated distinct roles for cardiomyocyte, endothelial cell, and leukocyte cell Nox2 in ANG II (angiotensin II)-induced cardiovascular remodeling. However, the in vivo role of fibroblast Nox2 remains unclear. Approach and Results: We developed a novel mouse model with inducible fibroblast-specific deficiency of Nox2 (fibroblast-specific Nox2 knockout or Fibro-Nox2KO mice) and investigated the responses to chronic ANG II stimulation. Fibro-Nox2KO mice showed no differences in basal blood pressure or vessel wall morphology, but the hypertensive response to ANG II infusion (1.1 mg/[kg·day] for 14 days) was substantially reduced as compared to control Nox2-Flox littermates. This was accompanied by a significant attenuation of aortic and resistance vessel remodeling. The conditioned medium of ANG II-stimulated primary fibroblasts induced a significant increase in vascular smooth muscle cell growth, which was inhibited by the short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of fibroblast Nox2. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of ANG II-treated primary fibroblasts identified GDF6 (growth differentiation factor 6) as a potential growth factor that may be involved in these effects. Recombinant GDF6 induced a concentration-dependent increase in vascular smooth muscle cell growth while chronic ANG II infusion in vivo significantly increased aortic GDF6 protein levels in control mice but not Fibro-Nox2KO animals. Finally, silencing GDF6 in fibroblasts prevented the induction of vascular smooth muscle cell growth by fibroblast-conditioned media in vitro. These results indicate that fibroblast Nox2 plays a crucial role in the development of ANG II-induced vascular remodeling and hypertension in vivo. Mechanistically, fibroblast Nox2 may regulate paracrine signaling to medial vascular smooth muscle cells via factors, such as GDF6.