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Traumatic stress history interacts with sex and chronic peripheral inflammation to alter mitochondrial function of synaptosomes.

Brain, behavior, and immunity (2020-05-12)
Gladys A Shaw, Molly M Hyer, Imogen Targett, Kimaya R Council, Samya K Dyer, Susie Turkson, Chloe M Burns, Gretchen N Neigh

Repeated exposures to chronic stress can lead to long lasting negative behavioral and metabolic outcomes. Here, we aim to determine the impact of chronic stress and chronic low-level inflammation on behavior and synaptosomal metabolism. Male (n = 31) and female (n = 32) C57Bl/6 mice underwent chronic repeated predation stress or daily handling for two rounds of 15 consecutive days of exposure during the adolescent and early adult timeframes. Subsequently, mice were exposed to repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 7.5 × 105 EU/kg) or saline injections every third day for eight weeks. Exploratory and social behaviors were assessed in the open field and social interaction tests prior to examination of learning and memory with the Barnes Maze. Mitochondrial function and morphology were assessed in synaptosomes post-mortem using the Cell Mito Stress test and Seahorse XFe24 analyzer, TEM, and western analysis, respectively. In addition, expression of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and ROMO1 were examined in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex with Taqman qPCR. Circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the periphery were assessed using the MSD V-plex Proinflammatory Panel 1 following the first and last LPS injection as well as at the time of tissue collection. Circulating ROMO1 was assessed in terminal samples via ELISA. Exposure to repeated predatory stress increased time spent in the corners of the open field, suggestive of anxiety-like behavior, in both males and females. There were no significant group differences in the social interaction test and minimal effects were evident in the Barnes maze. A history of chronic stress interacted with chronic LPS in male mice to lead to a deficit in synaptosomal respiration. Female mice were more sensitive to both chronic stress and chronic LPS such that either a history of chronic stress or chronic LPS exposure was sufficient to disrupt synaptosomal respiration in females. Both stress and chronic LPS were sufficient to increase inflammation and reactive oxygen in males centrally and peripherally. Females had increased markers of peripheral inflammation following acute LPS but no evidence of peripheral or central increases in inflammatory factors or reactive oxygen following chronic exposures. Collectively, these data suggest that while metrics of inflammation and reactive oxygen are disrupted in males following chronic stress and chronic LPS, only the combined condition is sufficient to alter synaptosomal respiration. Conversely, although evidence of chronic inflammation or chronic elevation in reactive oxygen is absent, females demonstrate profound shifts in synaptosomal mitochondrial function with either a history of chronic stress or a history of chronic inflammation. These data highlight that different mechanisms are likely in play between the sexes and that sex differences in neural outcomes may be precipitated by sex-specific effects of life experiences on mitochondrial function in the synapse.

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Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture