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Size of Cells and Physicochemical Properties of Membranes are Related to Flavor Production during Sake Brewing in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Membranes (2020-12-24)
Tsuyoshi Yoda, Tomoaki Saito
ABSTRACT

Ethyl caproate (EC) and isoamyl acetate (IA) are key flavor components of sake. Recently, attempts have been made to increase the content of good flavor components, such as EC and IA, in sake brewing. However, the functions of EC and IA in yeast cells remain poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EC and IA using cell-sized lipid vesicles. We also investigated lipid vesicles containing EC and/or caproic acid (CA) as well as IA and/or isoamyl alcohol (IAA). CA and IAA are precursors of EC and IA, respectively, and are important flavors in sake brewing. The size of a vesicle is influenced by flavor compounds and their precursors in a concentration-dependent manner. We aimed to establish the conditions in which the vesicles contained more flavors simultaneously and with different ratios. Interestingly, vesicles were largest in a mixture of 50% of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) with 25% EC and 25% CA or a mixture of 50% DOPC with 25% IA and 25% IAA. The impact of flavor additives on membrane fluidity was also studied using Laurdan generalized polarization. During the production process, flavors may regulate the fluidity of lipid membranes.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, lyophilized powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Indole-3-acetic acid sodium salt, BioReagent, suitable for plant cell culture, ≥98%